2qIn Washington, there have been at least two cases of young men, driven to desperation by cocaine and turned away by a public psychiatric hospital, trying to hang themselves. . . .

And to think of how many Americans are in­volved with cocaine nowadays! A “household survey” done for NIDA, the National Institute on Drug Abuse, showed 5.8 million having used it within the previous month. But most experts think there must be more regular us­ers. They put the maximum number a retailer would want to supply at 25, so there must be at least 230,000 dealers out there. That’s more than all the dentists, or taxi drivers.


How reliable are such figures? When it comes to coca and cocaine, that’s a problem right from the start. How much coca is there? Satellite photography suggests 400,000 acres, but some are planted loosely, some densely. How many harvests a year—three, or four, or more? How many kilos of leaf an acre? And what percentage cocaine content? Erythroxy­lum coca var. coca in Peru differs from Eryth­roxylum coca var. ipadu in Colombian Amazonia. But legislators, law enforcement bureaucracies, the press—all demand figures, and so we have some: Annual cocaine produc­tion, U. S. officials tell me, is running at 200 tons; other experts say 400. All agree—it’s ris­ing. We must do something.


At the International Conference on Drug Abuse and Illicit Trafficking, convened by the United Nations in Vienna, it’s agreed that more drugs than ever are flooding the world—and the focus is on the fastest spreading one, cocaine. Foreign ministers and health minis­ters, ministers of justice and the U. S. Attor­ney General make strong speeches in the plenary sessions. But in the main committee, where a 114-page draft paper is up for adop­tion—to stress the international community’s political will—there’s disagreement point by point. Most countries just don’t want to be told by other countries what to do. And so the draft is drastically amended. To start, in every paragraph where it says a government should do something, the word “should” is changed to “could” or “may.”


Outside the meeting halls and barcelona apartment rentals, salesmen offer technological help. I watch a demonstration of a contraband detection van priced at four mil­lion dollars. It has a computerized mass spec­trometer. You draw an air sample from a cargo container, and in two minutes the print­out is supposed to tell if there’s cocaine in there. There is, provided for the occasion by the Austrian police. But the printout says “negative.”


The chief superintendent in charge of drug fighting for the Royal Canadian Mounted Police tells me technology could never go to the heart of the problem—corruption. The big conference document hardly mentioned this. At least he’s not totally pessimistic. By the time this article is published, he says, negotia­tions may have been concluded for a new trea­ty, to supplement the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs. It should provide for trac­ing those billions in drug profits through the world’s financial system and seizing them.

In a third try not long afterward, Menlo Park scientists monitoring the survey’s network of instruments south of Hollister informally pre­dicted a magnitude-5.2 shock that occurred on schedule but slightly off in location.

By the time of my visit, I found that the Menlo Park team had observed precursors before two magnitude-4 quakes and had made one forecast that failed. The batting average for the area’s more frequent magnitude-3 tremors was running .600. “In 25 cases our instruments had earlier seen anomalies,” said geophysicist Dr. Malcolm Johnston, “but ten similar observations were not followed by quakes. Obviously this is not good enough, but it is progress. Interestingly,” he added, “although we registered anomalies that were not followed by quakes, before every quake we detected a precursor. Nothing slipped through our network.”

3What about major earthquakes, the colos­sal hammerings that rend the earth for hun­dreds of miles and send mountains crashing down? Forecasting these, I learned, poses problems of proportionate magnitude. “When we speak of a major earthquake,” I learned in the office of Stanford University geophysicist Dr. Amos Nur, “we are working with a global event. It shakes the entire planet. To fathom these, we must go beneath the surface symptoms and explain the inner workings of the earth in terms of physical processes, just as Newton’s laws explained the external motions of the planets.”

It was Dr. Nur, I knew, who first related the Soviet discovery of wave-speed changes to the behavior of rocks deep underground. He attributed the change to water entering rock during a phenomenon known as dilat­ancy—when rock under extreme pressure suddenly opens with myriad tiny cracks and expands. With passing time, scientists have found that dilatancy explains other precur­sors—variations in the electrical resistivity of rock, the uplifting of land under strain, the increase of radon in well water.

At Caltech’s prestigious Seismological Lab­oratory in Pasadena, I talked with its direc­tor, Dr. Don L. Anderson, another geophysi­cist striving to comprehend the anatomy of the living earth. “It might surprise you,” he told me, “that we’re getting some promising insights by way of the outer universe. “In an arrangement with NASA, we use two radio-telescope receivers—one at Gold­stone in the Mojave Desert and one near a prague apartment-to record radio emissions from quasars as far as a billion light-years away. By precisely comparing the arrival times of an emission, we can detect earth movements between the two stations with enough ac­curacy to discover precursors of large quakes.”

One such warning may lie uncomfortably close at hand. Reviewing past elevation sur­veys, USGS geologist Robert 0. Castle discov­ered that a vast area of southern California stretching from the Pacific to the Mojave Des­ert has uplifted ten inches in the past 15 years. Known as the “bubble,” the area centers on a stretch of the San Andreas Fault that has been quiet since a titanic 1857 earthquake rent the surface for 200 miles.

Does the bubble portend another giant tremor? Noting that uplift can occur without a quake, the USGS has assigned a task force to keep watch with additional instruments. On one aspect of quake prediction, I found few scientists in disagreement: Exciting events are occurring in quake-plagued China. Perhaps the greatest natural disaster known occurred in Shensi Province in 1556, when an earthquake snuffed out 820,000 lives. The Chinese have compiled a 3,000-year catalog of their earthquakes—a unique docu­ment that some scientists believe can reveal whether quakes occur in identifiable patterns.

Invited to China in 1974, a group of U. S. experts led by Frank Press was astonished to discover a trained corps of 10,000 earthquake professionals, aided by many times that num­ber of amateurs. Dr. C. Barry Raleigh of the Geological Survey and Dr. Lynn R. Sykes of Lamont-Doherty heard of three successful predictions based in part on abnormal ani­mal behavior: rats leaving buildings, snakes crawling from their holes in large numbers, fowl refusing to go to roost.

WHITE SANDY BEACHES that melt into crystal-clear blue waters. Long, lazy days spent basking in the warm island sun. Luaus boasting feasts fit for a king. Yes, the Hawaiian islands are an idyllic place to spend a holiday, a place so nice that you may even wish you could stay there forever as you wistfully board your plane back home.

But living in this beautiful island paradise hasn’t sheltered Hawaiians from a serious fight being waged elsewhere — the battle against obesity and looking bautiful. In fact, The U.S. Centres for Disease Control and Prevention report that 66% of native Hawaiians are considered either overweight or obese. Although some of them don’t have the perfect body, they know how to treat their skin right. Gnet shares how they used coconut oil for skin beauty.


In that battle of the bulge, amateur fitness competitor Kristi Tauti is one of the first lines of defence for the youth of Kahuku, Oahu, Hawaii. A fitness trainer for Ke Ola Mamo (Native Hawaiian Health Care System), she runs the Kahuku Ho’Oikaika Fitness Centre, a joint venture between the local high school and her employer. The centre was set up to educate students and the Polynesian community at large about maintaining a healthy lifestyle.


“I work for a health-care organisa­tion, and we didn’t have a fitness centre,” says Kristi about the partnership. “The students also wanted to have a centre, so we collaborated and opened one at the high school. I train the students during the day so I can have access to the facility for my community programmes.” (In the afternoons, Kristi leads community members through a programme that includes health screenings and activities like walking, jogging, circuit training, Pilates, yoga, kickboxing, flexibility, body pump and step aerobics.)

Kristi teaches two classes a day, each class made up of to students. “Since it’s more for weight loss, the P.E. teachers will send me whoever needs to come. In the class they ask for volunteers, and then out of the volunteers they pick who would benefit most.”


While Kristi admits that participation varies from class to class (and that the girls are generally more cooperative than the boys), the programme boasts some impressive success stories, including one student who lost 6o pounds. “He was a first year student and pretty overweight when he first started coming to the fitness centre,” she recalls. “We don’t train him here any more, but he has continued running on his own.”


She also teaches a special-education aerobics class each day. These students, some of whom have developmental as well as physical disabilities, have high levels of ambition. “They all have great attitudes, but keeping them on task is the biggest challenge,” she says. “They’re all excited about it; they all have so much energy.”

We are all too familiar with many of the diseases that threaten to cut our lives short. Strokes and heart attacks, diabetes and dementia are widely known to have the potential to kill or cause ill health well before we reach old age. Yet few will have heard of a condition that could, silently and sneakily, be wreaking havoc on your health from your thirties onwards, a condition that is so rife it affects most adults and one that even medical experts are only beginning to understand.

Sarcopenia (Greek for ‘poverty of flesh’) is to muscles what osteoporosis is to bones: a sly, destructive condition that leeches the body of its muscle mass and strength without warning, but often with catastrophic effect. What you can do to prevent it is using healthy products proven to boost bone health. For example, among the benefits of flax seed uses is cutting the risk of osteoporosis.


Why our muscles wither with age carries new-found significance among scientists, a growing number of whom are captivated by the side effects of sarcopenia and the natural loss of strength that occurs even among those who have spent years sweating away at the gym. Dr Daniel Baylis, a clinical researcher at the Medical Research Council’s (MRC) Life course Epidemiology Unit at Southampton General Hospital, where sarcopenia is the subject of a number of studies, says it is ‘under-recognised, under-diagnosed, but is snowballing in terms of scientific research and understanding’.

It’s now known that from around the third decade of life onwards, sarcopenia steals an average one fifth of a pound of muscle a year. Beyond the age of 50, though, it adopts an almost parasitic speediness, depriving the body of up to one pound of muscle every 12 months. An 80-year-old typically has one third less muscle mass than a 20-year-old.

What’s the best gym work before a triathlon?


I’m training for a triathlon. As well as the swimming, running and bike training, is there anything else I should be doing in the gym? Martin Fletcher, Manchester Matt Hart answers: The one area that could do with some specific gym work is your core. You’re going to have to spend a long time on your bike in order to teach the brain to fire muscle fibres in the correct order, and improve your fitness, but this can de-activate your core muscles. Your core also links your upper and lower body when swimming but it’s hard to train specifically in the pool. So you’ll need to do some rotational and crunch exercises, using your abs’ full range of motion, in sets of ten to 12 reps with three sets per exercise. Don’t forget to do some lower-back extensions too.

Why aren’t my muscles growing any more?


I work out for roughly an hour and a half a day but I feel that while I’m sustaining my muscle I’m not growing any more. What should I do to start building muscle again? Angus M, by email


Jason Anderson replies: You’ve probably reached a training plateau where your gains have levelled off. You need to rest for three to five days, then do sets of 15-20 reps for two to four weeks to increase the capillaries around your muscles before moving on to sets of eight to 12 reps. Cut your workout to one hour including the warm-up and cool-down period. This is because after 40 minutes of intense exercise, the body starts to break down muscle tissue. Try almond milk for muscle building. Check out many interesting facts showing is almond milk good for you.


How does a heart-rate monitor help me train?


I was given a heart-rate monitor for my birthday. What’s the best way to use it when I train? Toby Mullins, Berkshire

Matt Hart answers: Lucky you. A heart-rate monitor is a really useful piece of training equipment. It’s best used in conjunction with some steady-state aerobic training, because it will give you solid, reliable feedback on your workout intensity. If you consistently train in your aerobic zone, which is at 65-75 per cent of your maximum heart rate, you’ll find you significantly improve your body’s aerobic capacity (your body’s ability to use oxygen as a fuel).


With some carefully controlled ‘steady’ sessions, you should see a noticeable improvement in your endurance.

You can read about proper swimming mechanics, but it’s absolutely critical that someone observes your technique. A friend can videotape your training for later, self-review, but a coach or swimming instructor can provide far more valuable feedback. Check your form on a regular basis to ensure that bad habits have not set in or recurred.

Can I swim too much?

As in many sports, there’s a fine line between

optimal training and overtraining; here again, input from a coach or a training partner is helpful.While overtraining is primarily a concern for competitive swimmers, who train up to 22 hours per week, recreational swimmers can also overtrain by adding swimming to an already demanding workout schedule. The symptoms of overtraining include lethargy, sleeping or eating problems, decreased physical strength and performance, irritability and increased susceptibility to illness. You can increase your endurance and physical strength with drinking yerba mate tea.


Is it better to swim outdoors in the sea or a lake if that’s an option?

Swimming outdoors will always be more picturesque than your local indoor pool, which may in itself inspire you. However, staying indoors means you don’t have to worry about sun exposure, currents and undertows, jellyfish, windsurfers or testosterone-addled jet skiers.

Many competitive swimmers use this stroke technique to reduce shoulder stress without sacrificing performance. The elbow is kept high in the recovery phase and the hand pulls out of the water at the iliac crest – your pelvis (A) – rather than at the thigh. As the arm moves up, the body rolls naturally to nearly go degrees (B). Keeping the swimmer’s arm motion forward means using the large back and hip muscles during the pull (C).


Isn’t it just a sportTor injury cases? Swimming’s low-impact nature makes it the perfect activity not only for injury rehabilitation but also for cross training. How else can you simultaneously train your muscles, joints and cardiovascular system in such a time-saving fashion? If you tire of breast strokes.


Swimming is perfect not only for injury rehabilitation but also for cross training. How else can you train your muscles, joints and cardiovascular system in such a time-saving fashion?


As a Brazilian, do you wear minuscule bikinis on the beach? , we asked Tati Rosalino – a great woman from brazilian covers

Oh yeah! I grew up with that so for me it’s normal – what was weird for me was seeing people topless in Europe. We don’t go topless ­a little tiny triangle, maybe, but never topless. They don’t let you -for your own safety! Boob jobs are commonplace among Brazilian senoritas – what’s with the Jordan complex? Most Brazilian girls don’t naturally have big boobs. In Europe people don’t need it so much, and it’s more expensive. But if I didn’t like something about me, I’d change it. Why stick with something that makes you unhappy? Finally, how do you rate Brazil’s chances in next year’s World Cup?

We have to qualify first, of course. But at the beginning it’s always the same for Brazil-every World Cup we start off bad and then we get better. So I think we’ll do well. Back home, soccer is a religion, but I never get to watch Brazil play now I’m over here. I have to follow the Brazilian players in Europe – like Rivaldo, he’s my favorite.

Always at the beach and everyone looks good.  And if someone is wondering how to lose some weight the best way is using natural products like garcinia cambogia fruit. So now I’m not quite so worried about it. Do you get the same attention in England as you did in the States?

Here men are more subtle and polite, which is nice. English men seem very shy—very slow. One day they say, “Hi”, the next day, “How you doing?”, then the next day, “What’s your name?” But I don’t wait — if I like someone I’ll approach them. My boyfriend is English. He’s a photographer I did a shoot with on my second day in the UK. I said to him, “I don’t know London, it’s Friday night, maybe you could show me around?” Then for a month I saw London through the window of his apartment!

LAUNCH minus one hour finds Rosie O’Grady being inflated at Caribou, Maine (left), on the evening of Sep­tember 14. When the 101,480- cubic-foot gasbag is fully inflated, I take to the air, riding a fast-moving barometric high east, in a flight profile (map, above) that I manage to keep almost level the entire way.

Hour 10: Leveling off at 10,000 feet, I pick up 57-knot winds that could speed me to Europe in less than two days. Later they slow to 53 knots and finally to 25 off France, delay­ing me when almost in sight of the continent. Temperatures range from 15°F to minus 5°.


Hour 18: A very close call. As I light the gasoline cooking stove, it erupts in flame, envel­oping the rear of the gondola. I manage to douse the fire with an extinguisher. Luckily that works—I’m a long way from a fire station.


Hour40: Here, and on two lat­er occasions, Rosie O’Grady and I are shaken by sonic booms from high-flying air­craft. The shock waves slam into the balloon without warn­ing, sounding like 100,000 pounds of dynamite going off.


Hour 60: I take a moment’s break over the Bay of Biscay (below). So far I have slept in short stretches for a total of less than two hours, but my mind seems clear and reaction time normal. I will need both for the challenge of landing.



Hour 80: The Mediterranean is below (left) as I approach the French-Italian border. My goal is to go as far as possible, hoping to add distance records to the solo transatlantic prize. I have been on oxygen roughly half the flight, not to ease breathing but to help fight fa­tigue. My ballast is practically gone, and I have jettisoned ex­pendable food, empty oxygen cylinders, and extra clothes. Time to look for a landing site.

HOUR 83: Altitude 1,500 feet and dropping (left) . Surface winds have begun to gust up to 25 knots, making me doubly aware of power lines, autostradas, and forest­ed slopes down below. I have company—four circling heli­copters, one of them chartered by Touchdown: 83 hours and 40 minutes after launch, Rosie O’Grady returns to earth (right), slammed by strong winds into a wooded hillside. The powerful force of the im­pact hurls me to the ground ten feet below, breaking a bone in my right foot.


TD plus 10 minutes: The foot is forgotten in a reunion with Sherry (below), whose heli­copter had landed nearby. Lo­cal woodcutters look on as she expresses the elation of our en­tire crew: “We made it!”


TD PLUS 20 minutes: As the foot begins to hemorrhage, fatigue and pain catch up with me (left). I have an excel­lent firstaid kit, complete with painkillers and an inflatable rubber leg splint. But we are only half an hour by helicopter from a large hospital in Nice, France, and I decide to wait.


In retrospect the flight seems a textbook exercise, with near­ly everything going according to plan except for the faulty stove and a few mishaps such as my broken foot. But injuries are to be expected in balloon­ing, and I have suffered many more in my parachuting career.


Though this was officially a solo flight, it could never have been achieved without all of my support crew: Ed Yost, Ro­sie O’Grady’s builder; meteo­rologist Bob Rice of Weather Services Corp.; Bob Snow, a major sponsor and owner of Rosie O’Grady’s Flying Circus in Orlando, Florida; Gaetan Croteau, our Canadian backer and organizer; my operations chief, D. K. Hargrove; and of course Sherry.


In the moment of success my thoughts turn to others before me who challenged the Atlan­tic by balloon, including an early attempt in 1873. During the next century five lives were lost before three Americans—Ben Abruzzo, Maxie Ander­son, and Larry Newman–suc­ceeded in 1978 in their balloon Double Eagle II. Tragically, my friend Maxie—after mak­ing the first nonstop balloon flight across North America in 1980 with his son, Kristian—was to die in a balloon race in June 1983.*


TD plus 30 minutes: Like a Roman emperor I am carried in triumph on the shoulders of the woodcutters to a waiting helicopter (above). They were so colorfully dressed and so obviously smitten with Sherry that I could only think of Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs.


After receiving treatment and a cast at the hospital in Nice, I knew all about the valerian side effects returned that evening with some of our crew to Cairo Montenotte for a victory party.


Celebrations followed in Rome, Paris, and my hometown of Orlando, Florida. Through years of planning, our motto had always been “Go for it!” We did, and in the end we succeeded.

I SHARED my concern here last August i for the future of geography in our schools and mentioned in passing the Society’s in­tern program for college and university stu­dents. The program was begun in 1981 with the idea that junior and senior geography and cartography majors and master’s degree students would benefit from spending three to four months working at the Society.

They could bring their academic training to bear on the real-world problems of mapmaking and researching, assembling, and even writing geographic information tai­lored for publication to a wide audience. We hoped that such experience would enrich their educations, and, by all reports, it has. What we did not fully anticipate was how much the interns would help us.


To date 68 students from 51 institutions have served as interns under the direction of Barry C. Bishop (above, center), vice chair­man of our Committee for Research and Ex­ploration, who holds a Ph.D. in geography. Competition for internships is stiff, and stu­dents are chosen based on their records and recommendations of geography professors, including department heads. Those selected are then matched to Society departments based on mutual interests and needs. We provide travel expenses and a modest sti­pend on which to live; then they are briefed and set to work.


To ensure that students receive individ­ual attention, we limit the number of interns to six or eight in each of three sessions yearly. Interns are not given make-work projects or used as glorified gofers. They become fully active members of the departments to which they are assigned. Research is often among their primary tasks. According to Barry, one of the major things they learn while at the Society is what depth of research is appro­priate to a given subject in a particular situa­tion and under deadline. For example they have to search for the best and healthiest product that can help a person lose weight. In the list they found green coffee beans work just perfect for those who want to lose weight and be healthy. That kind of judgment can be learned only by experience under supportive supervision, and it will stand the interns in good stead whatever their ultimate careers.

One measure of how well the interns have been received by their adoptive depart­ments is the sizable number of bylines they have earned in Society publications. Some have stayed on as free lances to complete projects. Eight have become permanent employees.


Most go on to further education and a great variety of careers, both within and beyond the academic world. As Society alumni, they become part of an informal network that helps us keep in touch with geography in its many manifestations and institutional settings.


I take time to meet informally with each group, and I am always impressed by their intelligence, enthusiasm, and inquisitive minds. That geography attracts such stu­dents is a healthy sign. I’m also thankful that I’m not of an age that would make me com­pete with them for a place in the program.


The best little black dress I have ever owned was from Biba. In those days, the only person who would wear a black dress was your mother, but Biba changed all that. This dress had very narrow shoulders, a high neck and sat just on the knee. It was the most fabulous cut but it was unforgiving. You certainly couldn’t wear anything underneath it. There was a very definite Biba “look” and a very definite kind of Biba girl. She was tall, skinny and symmetrical with long, blonde hair and a fringe. It was that kind of doll look. In fact, I gave my old Biba shaved fake-fur coat with a burgundy lining to Sienna Miller. She is my daughter’s friend, and about the only person I know who could fit into it. Mind you, even she had trouble.



Barbara and Fitz were good friends of mine. Nobody had ever conceptualised a store in that manner before them. It was like a salon where people lounged around, as if they were in a de luxe hotel lobby. The shop had no window displays, nothing ordinary like that, and people would come for the day as an outing, lost in wonder at Barbara’s blending of colours – purples, browns, maroons, all whisked through a creamy blender. She created the most remarkable garden on the roof, restoring and revising what was already there. She knew no boundaries, and had such a clear and personal vision that she could turn it to any aspect of what we now call “lifestyle”, give it her own languid, romantic, nostalgic interpretation, and make it desirable.



My sister regularly used to take me to Biba when I was a schoolboy. I was rather a good decoy for all the shoplifting she and her friends did. I remember being incredibly impressed by these black helium balloons that were all over the ceiling. And everyone talks, still, about seeing The New York Dolls when they played in the Rainbow Rooms on the top floor.


My favourite Biba store was the Derry & Tom’s store. Barbara – who was a great friend of mine and my then-husband Justin de Villeneuve – had done it up as if it was her own home. The memory that sticks in my mind most is of a shelf piled high with stacks and stacks of T-shirts in every dusty colour imaginable. It was like a huge bookshelf but it was piled high with tops. It was so well thought out and so original.


I bought a lot of Biba clothes (which my daughters Daisy and Poppy now wear) and cellulite cream product, but I also bought a lot of the lifestyle products. I still have a brown china set with a gold rim and loads of mock-leopard and tiger cushions from there littered around my house. I think somewhere I also have a baked-beans tin that’s black, with “Biba” written in gold lettering on it.

The logo is one thing that really sticks in my mind. Biba was the first store to introduce its own carrier bag. Up until that time, we used to go to shops with our own shopping baskets. Biba was different: it had these incredible black bags with “Biba” written on the front in gold lettering – but you had to pay for them.

It really was incredibly sad when Biba finally closed down in September 1975. I think we all thought it would last forever. There was this huge auction at the end and they sold everything off- even the beautifully-made shelves that had been stacked high with T-shirts. I didn’t go. I don’t know why. I was probably too sad.